Screen size management in mobile HTML5 games

When it comes to mobile HTML5 games there are a few new problems to solve when compared to desktop. For example managing the resize of the game area is very important, whether you’re rendering the game using DOM or Canvas. Noboby wants to play the game that takes only half of the screen, because everything would be just too small. On the other hand having the game area twice as the screen size and forcing user to scroll it is also a very bad idea. Resizing the game area to fit the device screen is the best solution in this situation. Let’s see what options we have right now.

We can manage the resize of the screen either by coding it in JavaScript or by scaling it using CSS:

1. JavaScript scaling

We just grab the Canvas element and change its width and height to the actual values.

2. CSS scaling

We can also set the Canvas to take the whole available space using only CSS.

3. CSS Transforms using JavaScript

The example above takes the width and height of the Canvas element, calculates the scale and then the CSS Transforms are applied. This technique is used in Enclave Games‘ Captain Rogers - it works great for simple games on small devices.

Captain Rogers

It’s not perfect though. The scaling used above can make the game look blurred on devices with bigger screens. It won’t take the content of the game into consideration too – it just scales the Canvas with everything inside. We used  scaleToFit, but there are also other options – beside fitting we can make it stretch or cover.

1. Stretch

It just stretches the whole game (see the scaling techniques 1. and 2.) so if your device have different aspect ratio than your game it will look strange and unnatural.

2. Cover

This way you will fill the whole screen, but the extra content will be cut off – some of the elements of your game that will be placed on the borders of the screen won’t be visible. Instead of  var scaleToFit = Math.min(scaleX, scaleY); you can use  var scaleToCover = Math.max(scaleX, scaleY); to see the expected result.

3. Fit

This technique looks like it’s the best one, though still not perfect. The game ratio will be the same and nothing will be cut off – the only problem would be with inactive stripes on both sides of the Canvas element.

Captain Rogers - fit

Check out this handy article at Mozilla Hacks to see this and other optimization techniques useful for your HTML5 mobile game.

There is another way to manage screen size and be content-aware at the same time. It’s a higher level of scaling which include showing different game areas for different aspect ratios and having the Canvas fill the whole screen constantly. This looks like the most universal approach, but it’s the hardest one to achieve and it’s not perfect for every type of game as seeing more than others can give the player unfair advantage. You can see this in action in Jesse Freeman‘s Super Paper Monster Smasher.

Super Paper Monster Smasher

The last thing to remember is that the scaling have to be executed both at the beginning (when you launch your game) and on the resize event on the browser to scale the scene dynamically. You just have to add an event listener to your code:

Then on every resize event the  resizeCanvas() function will be executed. You just have to place your scaling code there and it will work as expected.

What are your techniques to manage screen size? Do you have different ways to do it? Do you even do it by yourself or leave it to the framework? Share your experience!

  • Ryan Davis

    This is such an important part of HTML5 development. It took a long time to change my understanding of how game windows work–I didn’t realize how locked into a 4:3 box I was until I started making games for mobile. It definitely changes the way you think about designing the world within a game.

  • Marcio Andrey Oliveira

    This article is very interesting.

    Thank you for sharing.

  • Nicolas Hoizey

    What about modifying the place of interface elements? For some games, it may allow both portrait and landscape ratios.

  • Salvatore Capolupo

    this is interesting, but how could I extend this automatic scaling for a canvas with nested divs? see example there:

  • Rajesh Kumar

    Hello, i need some detail about app scaling. How can i make a app to fit all size of screens. Please give some idea with explanation